Predicative Speech

This is the capacity for the sense of how symbols (words and numbers) interconnect sequentially into fluent sentences and procedures. This occurs in thinking, speech and writing. Following are examples of problems caused by weaker functioning in this capacity.

The ability to rehearse and recode information and actions through speech inside one's head (internal speech) is impaired. In any learning situation this impairs the person from being able to actively recode information through internal speech in order to retain the information solidly in memory. Thus the information that can be memorized immediately, breaks down over time with a significant loss in long term retention due to an inability to recode the information. In other words, the person may show an inability to recapitulate or 'put things in his own words'.
The person tends to have stereotypic speech (e.g., a store of memorized or cliched phrases) because he has trouble elaborating or extending speech. The person tends to speak in short sentences. Written expression is similar. The person does not have a sense of the appropriateness of where words go positionally in a sentence. The sentences used often are incomplete and do not make sense even when complete, e.g., "I would ask a loan for the bank."

There is difficulty in following long sentences.The person lacks tact in what he says and may appear to be rude because there is a failure of active internal mental rehearsal of what he is going to say and what the consequences of this would be. An example: a girl receives a cassette of a rock group for a birthday present and hands the tape back to the giver saying "I don't like this group".
Procedures in mathematics can be learned with some extra effort but there is a breakdown of the steps of the procedure over a relatively short time. A common example is that the steps in a long division question fall apart.

The person does not work out inside his head using internal speech the significance and consequences of doing something before acting so behavior can appear impulsive or ill considered.

The person has very limited ability to say things to himself inside his head to control his behavior. He cannot go through a process of active internal rehearsal of what he should do in various situations. He may feel 'parachuted' into an experience and not be able to develop an effective response to his environment.

The "ASK BEFORE YOU DO" syndrome: Parents report that their child tries to be helpful and goes ahead and does something without asking before he does it. The person is not capable of thinking out the possible consequences of the action beforehand. For example the child washes his father's car which has just been waxed or the child trims the tree in the front yard almost cutting it down.

Arrowsmith has changed the way I learn to a whole different level. It has taught me to be patient, and it has allowed me to mature in different ways. I am glad that I was placed in this program because if I had not participated, I would probably be stressing out in high school with my learning difficulties instead of feeling like a regular student.

- Faye, Student

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