UNDERSTANDING LEARNING DISABILITIES

Motor Symbol Sequencing 

This capacity is involved in learning symbols.A deficit in this capacity causes students to have messy handwriting, miscopying, misreading, irregular spelling, speech rambling, careless written errors in mathematics and  poor written performance. More >>  

Symbol Relations 

This capacity is involved in understanding the relationships among two or more ideas or concepts. A weakness in this capacity may result in students having difficulties with reading comprehension, trouble with mathematical reasoning, trouble with logical reasoning, difficulty reading an analog clock and problem understanding cause and effect.  More >>

Memory for Information or Instructions 

This is the capacity for remembering chunks of information such as instructions. A weakness in this capacity may result in students having trouble remembering oral instructions, difficulty following lectures or extended conversations, problem acquiring general information through listening.  More >>

Predicative Speech 

This is the capacity for the sense of how symbols (words and numbers) interconnect sequentially into fluent sentences and procedures. This occurs in thinking, speech and writing. A weaker functioning in this capacity will creative problems putting information into one's words, speaking in incomplete sentences, difficulty using internal speech to work out consequences, trouble following sentences, breakdown of steps in mathematical procedures.  More >>

Broca's Speech Pronunciation

This is the ability to learn how to pronounce syllables and then to learn how to integrate the syllables into the stabilized and consistent pronunciation of a word. A weakness in this capacity leads students to mispronounce words, avoid words because of uncertainty of pronunciation, limited ability to learn and use phonics, difficulty learning foreign languages, difficulty thinking and talking at the same time, flat and monotone speech with lack of rhythm and intonation.  More >>

Auditory Speech Discrimination 

This is the ability to discriminate between similar sounding speech sounds. Students with problems in this area mishear words and thus misinterpret information, have difficulty understanding someone with an accent, extra effort required to listen to speech.  More >>

Symbolic Thinking 

The symbolic thinking capacity is responsible for developing and maintaining plans and strategies for action through the use of language. It is the capacity for mental initiative in symbolic tasks. Problems in this capacity are reflected in students having great difficulty developing strategies for studying, difficulty thinking, planning and problem solving.  More >>

Symbol Recognition 

This is the capacity to recognize and remember a word or symbol visually that has been seen before. The following problems occur when this capacity is weak. The person has to study a word many more times than average before he can visually memorize the word and thus recognize it and say it correctly the next time he sees it. The interested in a career involving mathematics requires the supplementary motor capacity for mental operations at an above average level to succeed.     More >>

Lexical Memory 

This is the capacity necessary for remembering several words in a series. A student with this problem has trouble remembering more than three unrelated words in a series and trouble learning names of things such as animals, places, people, colors or days of the week. More >>  

Kinesthetic Perception 

This is the capacity for perception of where both sides of the body are in space. Students with problems in this capacity may have awkward body movements, bump into objects due to not knowing where body is in space relative to objects and may demonstrate uneven handwriting with variable pressure.  More >>

Kinesthetic Speech 

This is the awareness of the position of the lips and tongue. A student with this problem will have some slurred speech and difficulty with rapidly repeating tongue twisters as "which wristwatch" or "one runway".  More >>

Artifactual Thinking 

This capacity is necessary for the coordination, modulation and interpretation of emotions. When this capacity is impaired students have problems interpreting non-verbal information such as body language, facial expression and voice tone, weak social skills, difficulty perceiving and interpreting one's own emotion, difficulty thinking, planning and problem solving.  More >>

Narrow Visual Span 

This is the capacity responsible for the number of symbols or objects a person can see in one visual fixation. When the span is restricted to below four symbols reading speed is slowed down due to the extra time required to make the increased number of visual fixations. Eye fatigue when reading and problem navigating in the dark may occur.  More >>

Object Recognition 

This is the capacity for recognizing and remembering the details of visual objects. A student with a weakness in this capacity takes longer to visually recognize and locate objects, problem remembering visual cues such as landmarks, difficulty remembering faces and recalling the visual details of pictures.  More >>

Spatial Reasoning 

Spatial reasoning is the capacity to imagine a series of moves through space inside your head before executing them. Students with problems in this function frequently get lost, lose objects, have messy disorganized workspaces and have trouble constructing geometric figures.   More >>

Mechanical Reasoning 

Mechanical reasoning is a person's ability to understand mechanical and physical concepts such as gears, levers and pulleys. A student with a mechanical reasoning problem has difficulty in imagining how machines operate and problems handling and using tools.  More >>

Abstract Reasoning 

Abstract reasoning is the ability to analyze information and solve problems on a complex, thought-based level. Students with a weaknesses in this area have trouble understanding the proper sequence of steps in a task such as sewing, cooking or computer programming.  More >>

Primary Motor 

This problem interferes with the speed, strength and control of muscle movements on one side of body or the other. This results in some degree of awkwardness of body movement and some degree of less articulated movement on the affected side of the body.  More >>

Supplementary Motor 

A problem in this area impairs a student from carrying out internal sequential mental operations such as finger counting, trouble retaining numbers on one's head, difficulty making change, problem learning math facts and poor sense of time management. More >>

Arrowsmith has changed the way I learn to a whole different level. It has taught me to be patient, and it has allowed me to mature in different ways. I am glad that I was placed in this program because if I had not participated, I would probably be stressing out in high school with my learning difficulties instead of feeling like a regular student.

- Faye, Student

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